How not to drive twice in one “national garage”

“МК” has found out, which carplaces suits Moscow.
“National garages”, intercepting parkings and parkings in court yard — now city officials talks about their building-erection-construction more than ever. And like if to trust their statements, an era of civilized automobile movement in Moscow is not so far. However the experts who firstly supported the officials in all undertakings, have begun to doubt again in a reality of the declared plans. Experts have told “МК” why, in their opinion, the old garage program has failed and what is necessary to make, so that errors won’t repeat.

Error № 1. The city has given building of “National garages” on a payoff to local authorities.
A few people remembers, but in 2004 when the program “National garage” reflected, officials promised to the people that they would sell carplaces for 1,5-2 thousand dollars. A year later the price has grown up to 3,5 thousand dollars, by 2008 has reached 10 thousand dollars, and soon, despite crisis, the authorities declared the fixed rouble rate: 350 thousand rbl. for land garage and 700 thousand rbl. — for underground.
Then city authorities have decided to give the garage program a priority status (comparable to programs of building schools, kindergartens, municipal buildings and etc.). Was confirmed 4 garage types. Have decided that the width of carplace should be not less than 3,5 m.
Supervising the program assistent director of Department of a town-planning policy Konstantin Korolevsky has permited to prefects make decisions on building garages up to the 5 thousand in sq. m. without the coordination with the top management of Moscow. With one condition — if only building inhabitants will ask. As inhabitants didn’t hurry with their, the program skid again.
— “The National garage” reflected as the program with a claim, but the result has turned out very bad. Why? All have assigned to local officials, and they first of all should report about performance, — the senior lecturer of bridges and tunnel constructions MADI Sergey Zege speaks — To spend less money, they chose almost waste grounds where there are no problems with a rerun of communications and with obstinate inhabitants.
Error № 2. Sites, which city selected for “National garages”, was not interesting for large builders.
Roughly speaking, if all large investors refused to build an elite house in a certain empty territory, either the trading complex, or office center, officials with a clear conscience “approved” a site for building the “National garage”. Here, actually, why the big share of parkings has appeared in a distance from inhabited quarters.
Clearly that any sane Muscovite won’t buy garage if it takes him 20 minutes to get home from it, especially when he can leave his car at an entrance to his house free of charge. As a result there appeared lots of useless constructions in the city.
— “The National garage” is an example of the program which has been realized by a principle of the strong-willed decision. In economic sphere such projects seldom ends successfuly. Officials for some reason have decided that Muscovites will rush to buy everything at the identical price. Here’s the result: the good have sold, bad remained, and there’s much more bad then good — ascertains Zege. — I projected some garages and I can tell that under my projects from 1000 carplaces 151 was bought at once, the others aren’t sold. The city has involved experts for work, but still hasn’t paid off with them. As for me, for example, cost of design works is closed only on a half. Builders have the same situation. I understand that garages aren’t sold, but it turns out that risks are carried not by officials, but executors who have fairly made their work.
Well, parkings which have been constructed in convenient places, have snatched away on hurrah. For example, in Sokolnikah the garage has been bought up at a building stage. “It means that to appoint united price for carplace is a wrong decision. Garages will be bought up only at high solvency of the population and a convenient arrangement, — Zege argues. — But I am not assured that the present authorities begin to select new places by this principle”.
Error № 3. Garages should be basically “light”, instead of capital. Then the price for them will fall in 1,5–2 times.
“National garages” are considered as designs of high degree of solidity. A question: is necessary? “Actually national garage” is not garage in habitual understanding, it’s a building, — explains Zege. — I projected taking into account that it can be blown up, did calculation on a progressing collapse — it was demanded by examination. Because of people there. What difference — the person is in a shop or on a parking? But if we “clean” people from “National garage”, requirements on safety of all kinds sharply fall. So, the price decreases also.
Specialists in transportation suggests to “clean” people from garage by simple, but elegant way: build automated parkings instead of habitual “manege” parkings. The last work without participation of the person: the driver leaves the car, and the mechanism-platform moves the car to the place of storage.
— On the automated parking it is possible to place twice more cars, than on usual parking. The economy of space is reached at the expense of absence of passes between carplaces, — tells Zege. — materials are cheaper also: capital designs are build from ferro-concrete to solve fire resistance questions, and the automated garages — basically from a steel. As a result instead of a premise which people use, there is warehouse for cars. There is only an economic responsibility. Yes, let we once in 10 years pay indemnification to someone if suddenly something occurs, than we will put safety factors in all constructions.
— Universal tactic of building big parkings are basically incorrect. It is much more important to make many small parking, — professor MARKHI, a member of Public chamber Vyacheslav Glazychev agrees. — in 1990th if not even earlier, Japanese have started to establish between houses narrow metal sheds (5–6 metres width). 24 cars are located on several circles. The elevating mechanism represents two contours of the closed roller chains with trays for cars. In New York there is a more expensive, but a quite possible scheme too: opened 4-circle parkings with mechanical service. In general, there are many different variants which don’t demand digging of foundation ditches with multimonthly building.
The Moscow transport workers have workings out according to which the parking can be carried out over any surface — over the river, over the railway, over a highway. Or even over a usual court yard. Last variant is represented to the most disputable though scientists don’t see in it anything especial. “, Of course, certain discomfort from the point of view of that is visible from windows is possible, — Zege admits. — But we checked: as a rule, it is possible to observe the insolation requirements. There will be enough sun. Perhaps, appearance of a court yard, will deteriorate a little. But, on the other hand, there will be additional possibilities”.
However, it’s clear that such parkings won’t be free. “Time for free granting of a parking place in a city has passed, and Muscovites gradually start to get used to it, — sociologist Sergey Chornenky speaks. — the only thing where it is possible to grant any free services, maybe, intercepting parkings”.
If in suburbs, in dormitory areas it is possible to build land garages, in the center and in active zones out of the center — mainly underground. There is a Moscow method of underground constructions building in the center which successfully allows to solve this problem practically in any place. There is a plus as well in that fact that the parking can be easily adapted for local conditions. It is possible to make small garage, but it can be big. Outside it looks like pavilion no more then 100 square meters size. Its design is developed under the specific environment. For modern areas is one design, for old, there is another.
Error № 4. To operate all Moscow parkings there must be a united operator, there is no need in “seven nurses”.
— It is necessary to go by the way of complex building enough expensive, but quite paid back parkings in city center. And the best varient is automatic underground parkings, — economist Konstantin Kalevich considers. Thus it is hardly necessary to consider this question from a position “the more cheaper – the better”. It is necessary to look at efficiency. The garage which located successfully — near to trading and office centers, — will quickly pay off, for 4–5 years.
In city center and in rush places scientists suggest to make “parkings for” rent. And that is very important, to unite them in a system.
The driver calls or sends the SMS on united “parking” number and informs the address where he wants to park. The dispatcher looks for a place to him and informs, on which parking he can approach. If the driver wants to be parked during “scarce” time and in a “scarce” place, he should pay more. If, for example, he is offered a parking in 10 minutes walking from the address he named, the payment decreases. Authors of idea assert that creating such system is quick and it will give enormous effect. Well thought, a good investment program is necessary: the city should develop all specifications, and the investor — the united operator — to construct garages and to provide service in granting carplaces on a quite big territory. Thus the free parking in this area should be forbidden.
Perhaps in the begining it is possible to test this system in “National garages”, located in unsuccessful places? ”Basically it is possible, but hardly carplaces on waste grounds will be claimed, — Sergey Zege assumes. — Again, people will rent them only in a good place. It is necessary to construct garages there, where is a demand on them, instead of there, where they can be constructed even not clearly in whose opinion. It is necessary to begin with having done the bottlenecks, instead of building what is possible to build just to report: we have handed over such quantity of carplaces”.
Error № 5. The authorities didn’t have accurately generated garage plan.
— There aren’t any real programs even. Though there is a lot of statements, — Sergey Zege speaks. — In general my idea consists in depriving the state of participation in management the automobile movement. I suggest to unite drivers in the self-regulated organizations which will incur responsibility, on the one hand, for all sins of the members, and on the other hand — will tell that it is necessary to build: instead of unnecessary parkings — the necessary parkings, instead of repairing sites of roads which needn’t it will be repaired those sites where danger of road accident is raised. One million Moscow drivers is a real force. It is impossible make somebody buy something he or she doesn’t need. Budget money which at times are put in doubtful utility projects, will be saved.
What is necessary to be done for an active solution of a problem first of all? ”The main thing — to remove a problem on a local transport network, — transport workers answer. — the big highways, especially on which was constructed outcomes and have cleaned traffic lights, go more or less, but rest against small streets. it is impossible to get from the Tverskaya gate square to Brest streets. Parkings should be put everywhere. When one row is occupied with spontaneous parking on a 5-way highway it’s one situation, but when on 2-way — absolutely another. It is necessary to create the plan of placing parkings of all types at the level of the General city plan”.
And nevertheless what we should do with those “National garages” which are already constructed and stand unclaimed? ”It is unclear what to do with them. Perhaps, sell something more cheaply and something left for lease. Besides there should be a management company which is engaged in marketing and sale, — economists confirm. — it is necessary to consult to inhabitants and be defined. Any business should begin with marketing, instead of from the general instructions. The problem is: many hundred thousands parking spaces are necessary for Moscow. And the more quicklier they will be construct, the better city we will have. Today many questions which aren’t solved in Moscow, worsen a city economy. Less tourists come, business is working worse and etc. It’s strongly fastened with a transport infrastructure”.