How to drive into 21 century on a new transport?

The active urbanization of last 20 years forms the new challenge connected with growth of individual cars that are used in cities. It aggravates environmental problems of megacities, is annually a cause of death and a traumatism of hundreds thousand people, demands escalating financial investments, takes away lots of territory from townspeople. Traditional systems (the railway, the underground, a high-speed tram) do not satisfy new requirements of townspeople on comfort and safety level (including biological –  a flu!). They are not capable to replace cars in a city.

Development of an information technology of the last years has created preconditions of occurrence of the new types of transport based on principles of automated control by movement on special guideways with small capacity. Within the limits of these technologies following directions are developing:

- transportation of passengers in the automated crews small (1-6 persons) capacity on special railway lines or other types of guideways (common abbreviation PRT – Personal Rapid Transit),

– transportation of passengers and cargoes, including cars on special platforms on the special guideways (an abbreviation semi-Dual Mode PRT),

– maintenance of movement of the cars adapted for movement under control of the autopilot, in an automatic control mode on the special guideways, that also can be driven on usual streets under control of the driver (abbreviation AHS),

– maintenance of movement of special vehicles adapted as for movement in an automatic control mode on the special guideways, and on usual streets under control of the driver (abbreviation Dual Mode PRT).

These who use guideways of PRT System, have conclusive advantages in such aspects as comfort, safety (including biological – a flu), costs of transport ways, the general economic characteristics as compared with traditional types of transport. Road transport is much more expensive than PRT, especially if we will count cost of the city space, is unsafe because of big probability of road accident and bad influence on ecology. Nowdays, there are many PRT Systems been invented in the world. Two of them «ULTRA» and «2GetThere» have started working in 2009.

But usual PRT systems can’t provide the user with a freedom of movement. The Modern person finds it very difficult to live his native car. Therefore a number of new workings out suggests to transport passengers, cargoes, and also cars on the special electrified platforms on the special guideways in an automatic control mode.

In megacities and city agglomerations the system of Dual Mode PRT type in which movement of special vehicles is provided in an automatic control mode on the special guideways, and on usual streets under control of the driver can give the complex decision for problems of passenger transport service. Such system has all advantages of PRT – no trafic jams, the road accident, harmful emissions, movement under the accurate schedule, but does not deprive the user of possibility of using his own vehicle on which he can get whereever he wants.

The Russian enthusiasts of the automated transport have created the new technical decisions, allowing to solve transport problems at modern level:

TRAM Zest – the system concerning to a personal high-speed transport systems, allows to transport both passengers (drawing 1), and cargoes, including cars (drawing 2) on the special guideways. On throughput (to 20.000 passengers an hour in one direction) it is comparable to traditional rail transport (the railway, high-speed tram, the underground). But in «TRAM-ZEST» transportations are carried out on automatic platforms of small (2-4 tons) weights, moving with small (a minimum 2.4 seconds) intervals. Loading from platforms is much less, than from traditional cars, it defines low cost of guideways, and possibility of movement on an abrupt bias gives the chance of free three-dimensional movement that allows to build ways in very difficult conditions, overcoming any natural and man-made obstacles. What is very important – it will take minimum of city space to place the transport system.

Also there can be a very interesing perspective of combining TRAM Zest with “only cars” guideways. If coonstruction conditions are difficult or it is necessary to avoid pollution from exhaust fumes the TRAM Zest will be the best decision, on other sites common vehicles moves on inexpensive special guideways where is no access to trucks and other heavy cars. It will allow to unload city streets and to provide comfort and the big safety levels of moving both in personal, and in public transport. With this technology it is possible to perform effective connect of  inhabited suburbs and big cities that is one of the sharpest transport problems nowdays.

Pic 1

Pic 2

Vehicle РRT- ZEST – the personal electromobile adapted for “three-dimensional” movement in the automated mode on a special network of guideways which can be construct wuth big bias.

Pic 3

It can leave a special network and perform a run on the city streets on accumulators under the control of the driver. It is possible to equip it with the generator if such run is distant.

Pic 4

In mode Mono, without possibility of departure from a special way, vehicle PRT Zest can be used in a “PRT-taxi” mode, and also for transportation of cargo containers.

In the special guideway system can move many thousand vehicles at the same time, which are pushed by special rail movers which are located on the roof of the vehicle. These rail movers create demanded force of draught and simultaneously serve as slip rings to reserve energy in the vehicle accumulators. They can be operated easier and more reliably, than a wheel. There are two rail mover, leaning against one it is possible to change a trajectory in the plan, it as much as possible simplifies movement on forks. The most of the ways of transport system pass on guideways which can settle down on various marks, including high, for example, over building.

Changing position of rail movers on a vehicle frame, make it possible to carry out movement under the big bias, without inclining a cabin. Thus it is possible to minimise requirement of system for a city space and to suit it in almost any building.

The system has automated parkings all over the city, from which vehicles are served to users at station which settle down in surface level. Operated automatic vehicles can move at speed of 15 km/s with small intervals, for example, 1.5 seconds that provides throughput to 2400 vehicles (4000-6000 passengers) an hour on one way, it allows to pass hundred thousand passengers an hour in guideway network. Thus on km of two-acceptable ecologically safe line is required no more than 500 м2 to city territory.

In 21 century it is possible to expect new revolution of transport. Most likely it will be made in actively growing megapolices and will be based on an application of the individual automated vehiles. Whether there will be Russia among leaders of this innovative break or as before, will take advantage of another’s technologies, dares now. It is a question of the enormous world market, everywhere, where there are quickly growing economically well-founded city agglomerations new transport will be claimed. We can become active players on this field.